Αρχική Uncategorized To Improve Immunotherapy, Researchers Look at Limiting Cancer’s Access to Sugar While...

To Improve Immunotherapy, Researchers Look at Limiting Cancer’s Access to Sugar While Boosting Immune System’s Access

Sugar helps cancer grow, but the immune system also uses sugar to help its cells grow and divide. What happens to the effectiveness of immunotherapy when there’s a competition with cancer cells over sugar? Researchers behind a new study aimed to find out.

Combining mouse models and data from cancer patients, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center researchers found that the more sugar a tumor consumed, the less effective immunotherapy became. These results were published February 15th in the journal Nature.

Dr. Taha Merghoub, a co-leader on the study, says, “If we reduce a tumor’s use of glucose, then we free up more of it for immune cells to use, which benefits the immune response.”

Researchers say this may serve as a way to improve checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Immune checkpoints prevent immune system responses that are so strong they destroy healthy cells. They engage when checkpoint proteins on the surface of immune cells called T cells recognize and bind to partner proteins on other cells, including those on tumors.

PHOTO: PIXABAY/MARKUS SPISKE

Once these two proteins bind together, an off signal is sent to the T-cells, which can stop the immune system from destroying tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors block checkpoint proteins from binding to partner proteins, which stops the off signal from being sent and allows the immune system to kill cancer cells.

The researchers used this treatment alongside a mouse model of breast cancer that uses a lot of sugar to grow. In one group of tumors, they knocked down a key enzyme used by cells to rapidly consume glucose, in a process known as glycolysis. In the other group, they left the enzyme alone. The mice were treated with checkpoint inhibitors that targeted the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 before having surgery to remove the tumor.

Researchers found that the mice with tumors that consumed less sugar lived longer and were less apt to have their cancer spread. In addition, it seemed that the immune system could remember this response. When tumors were re-implanted in mice that had already had exposure to the less glycolytic tumors, the tumor growth was still stunted. In mice from the other group, the tumor growth continued.

PHOTO: PIXABAY/TAFILAH YUSOF

Researchers also compared glucose use by tumors in humans to the number of immune cells present in a tumor. They found that the more glucose was used, the fewer immune cells there were.

The study authors say there are two types of T cells important to immune checkpoints – effector T and regulatory T cells, or Tregs. Effector T cells kill cancer cells, and Tregs work as a brake on the effector T cells. They respond to glucose differently. More glucose allows the effector T cells to kill more cancer, while Tregs lose their ability to slow down the attack with more glucose. This means that allowing more glucose to be used by the immune system can pack a double punch for cancer.

Dr. Roberta Zappasodi, who teaches at Weill Cornell Medicine and took part in the research, says, “It was surprising and exciting to see that CTLA-4 blockade induces Tregs to use glucose and that this in turn reduces the suppression activity of these cells.”

PHOTO: PIXABAY

Dr. Merghoub adds, “The implication is that for tumors that are highly glycolytic and don’t respond to immune checkpoint blockade, one way of overcoming this resistance is to target tumor glycolysis with drugs.”

There are challenges in making this happen, though. The study authors say existing drugs that block sugar use by cancer cells also block its use by immune cells. They are now looking into ways to prevent tumor cells from using glucose while letting the immune system use it freely.

Provide Mammograms

Support those fighting Breast Cancer at The Breast Cancer Site for free!

Whizzco Source

Προηγούμενο άρθροToday is Random Acts of Kindness Day
Επόμενο άρθροProstate Cancer Genomics in Racial Minority Groups

NEWSLETTER

Συμπληρώστε το email σας για να λαμβάνετε τις σημαντικότερες ειδήσεις από το ogkologos.com

Βρείτε μας

2,449ΥποστηρικτέςΚάντε Like
57ΑκόλουθοιΑκολουθήστε

Διαβαστε Επίσης

Καρκίνος και Κορωνοϊός (COVID-19) ΜΕΡΟΣ Α

Εάν είστε καρκινοπαθής, το ανοσοποιητικό σας σύστημα μπορεί να μην είναι τόσο ισχυρό όσο κανονικά, έτσι μπορεί να ανησυχείτε για τους κινδύνους που σχετίζονται...

ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΗΜΕΡΑ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ

Η Παγκόσμια Ημέρα Κατά του Καρκίνου καθιερώθηκε με πρωτοβουλία της Διεθνούς Ένωσης κατά του Καρκίνου (UICC), που εκπροσωπεί 800 οργανώσεις σε 155 χώρες του...

ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΣΤΗ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΗ-ΜΙΚΡΟΚΥΤΤΑΡΙΚΟΥ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΟΝΑ (ΜΜΚΠ)

ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΣΤΗ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΗ-ΜΙΚΡΟΚΥΤΤΑΡΙΚΟΥ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΟΝΑ (ΜΜΚΠ) Γράφει ο Δρ Παπαδούρης Σάββας, Παθόλογος-Ογκολόγος   Ο ΜΜΚΠ βρίσκεται αναλογικά στο 80% και πλέον του συνολικού...

Διατρέχουν όντως οι καρκινοπαθείς μεγαλύτερο κίνδυνο λόγω κοροναϊού;

Σε πρακτικό επίπεδο, τα δεδομένα των σχετικών μελετών υποδηλώνουν ότι η χημειοθεραπεία ή οι άλλες αντι-νεοπλασματικές θεραπείες δεν αυξάνουν σημαντικά τον κίνδυνο θνησιμότητας από...

FDA: Η ακτινοβολία των smartphones δεν προκαλεί καρκίνο

Σε μια νέα έκθεσή της, η Υπηρεσία Τροφίμων και Φαρμάκων (FDA) των ΗΠΑ αναφέρει ότι επανεξέτασε τις σχετικές επιστημονικές έρευνες που δημοσιεύθηκαν τα τελευταία...

Νέα ανακάλυψη, νέα ελπίδα για τον καρκίνο

Ένα νεοανακαλυφθέν τμήμα του ανοσοποιητικού μας συστήματος θα μπορούσε να αξιοποιηθεί για την αντιμετώπιση όλων των ειδών καρκίνου, σύμφωνα με επιστήμονες του πανεπιστημίου Cardiff...
- Advertisment -

Ροή Ειδήσεων

FDA Approves Pembrolizumab Combination for the First-Line Treatment of Cervical Cancer

On 13 October 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck) in combination with chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab, for...

From Scan to Scan: The Challenges of Living with Metastatic Cancer

October 15, 2021, by NCI Staff Bethany Ross has been living with metastatic neuroendocrine cancer since she was diagnosed in 2018. Credit: Used with permission from...

The award-winning researcher behind next generation sequencing

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has given the genomic research community ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed that could only be dreamed of 20 years ago....

Many Breast Cancer Patients Use Cannabis to Manage Symptoms But Don’t Tell Their Doctors

Cancer and cancer treatment come with many side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and pain. In addition to the physical toll, the impacts to a...

Medicare Open Enrollment Starts Tomorrow!

Medicare open enrollment is upon us for 2022. If you are a Medicare recipient, this is the time of year when you can make...

Cancer in My Community: Providing Supportive Care in Serbia

Cancer in My Community is a Cancer.Net Blog series that shows the global impact of cancer and how people work to care for those with...