Αρχική World News Study Suggests a Link between Stress and Cancer Coming Back

Study Suggests a Link between Stress and Cancer Coming Back

, by NCI Staff

Blausen Neutrophil

Stress hormones can alter the behavior of some neutrophils, potentially causing dormant cancer cells to reawaken, a study suggests.

Credit: Medical Gallery of Blausen 2014. WikiJournal of Medicine. doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. CC BY-SA 4.0

For many cancer survivors, their worst nightmare is finding out that their cancer has come back. Even years after a seemingly successful treatment, cancer can start growing again, and scientists don’t know how this happens.

Now, a new study suggests that stress hormones may wake up dormant cancer cells that remain in the body after treatment. In experiments in mice, a stress hormone triggered a chain reaction in immune cells that prompted dormant cancer cells to wake up and form tumors again.

But if you are stressed, that doesn’t mean your cancer is going to come back, said the study’s lead researcher, Michela Perego, Ph.D., of The Wistar Institute Cancer Center. Several intermediate steps need to occur, Dr. Perego said, at least according to their studies in mice. 

“There could be many different ways to wake dormant cells. We’ve shown one mechanism, but I’m very confident this is not the only one,” she added. The results of the new study were published December 2 in Science Translational Medicine.

While plenty of research has shown that stress can cause cancer to grow and spread in mice, studies haven’t shown a clear link between stress and cancer outcomes in people. But it’s difficult to study stress in people for several reasons, including challenges with defining and measuring stress.

Nevertheless, there could be many far-reaching effects of the new study findings, particularly in the realm of identifying new therapeutic leads, said Jeffrey Hildesheim, Ph.D., of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, who was not involved in the research.

“This study is like a gateway that will likely open up numerous other research directions into the effects of cancer therapies and stress on dormant tumor cells,” Dr. Hildesheim said. It could also spark research into the effects of nerves and the nervous system on tumor growth, he said.

Immune Cells Wake Up Dormant Cancer Cells

Some cancer treatments can push surviving cancer cells into hibernation. These dormant cells either stop growing or grow very slowly. Because there are so few of them, they’re impossible to find with standard tests, Dr. Perego explained. And they don’t usually cause any issues—unless they start growing again.

“We don’t know exactly what triggers them to come back. Why in that moment?” she said. 

Dr. Perego studies how certain immune cells help cancer grow and spread. So, she wondered, could immune cells wake up dormant cancer cells?

To find out, her team created dormant cancer cells in the laboratory by genetically engineering lung cancer cells, or by treating lung, ovarian, and breast cancer cells with a common chemotherapy drug. Both kinds of dormant cancer cells survived but didn’t grow.

In lab dishes, dormant cells didn’t grow when mixed with B cells or T cells, two kinds of immune cells. But they started growing again when mixed with so-called “pro-tumor” neutrophils. 

Neutrophils, a kind of white blood cell, are part of the body’s first line of defense against infections. But tumors can turn neutrophils into bad actors, coaxing them into helping the tumor grow and spread.

When the researchers transplanted dormant lung cancer cells into mice that lacked an immune system, these cells didn’t form tumors. But if the dormant cancer cells were transplanted along with pro-tumor neutrophils, most of the mice developed lung tumors.

Stress Hormones Alter Neutrophils

With that finding, Dr. Perego and her colleagues faced a key question: What turns neutrophils rogue if there are no tumors left in a patient’s body? Because some studies have linked chronic stress to cancer progression, the scientists explored the effects of stress on neutrophils. 

Stress hormones like adrenaline and norepinephrine set off a chain reaction involving neutrophils and dormant cancer cells, the researchers found. In lab dishes, stress hormones caused neutrophils to spit out a protein duo known as S100A8/A9. These proteins made neutrophils produce certain lipids that, in turn, awakened dormant lung cancer cells. 

A mixture of norepinephrine and neutrophils also woke up human cancer cells made dormant from chemotherapy. 

What’s happening is “a type of cascade,” Dr. Perego said. “One component of this cascade alone doesn’t work. Neutrophils alone, S100A8/A9 alone, and stress hormones alone don’t work” to wake up dormant cells, she explained. “But when you have this chain of events…it reawakens dormant cells.”

Preventing Recurrences in Stressed Out Mice

The researchers next explored whether the same cascade occurred in mice that were stressed from being confined for a few hours a day. 

Stressed mice had more neutrophils in their lungs and spleens than unstressed mice, the scientists found. The stressed mice also had more S100 proteins in their blood. Dormant lung cancer cells formed tumors in stressed mice but not in unstressed mice.

However, when stressed mice were treated with a beta blocker, a blood pressure medicine that blocks stress hormones, dormant cancer cells couldn’t form tumors. The researchers saw similar effects when mice were treated with tasquinimod, a drug that blocks the activity of S100 proteins and has been tested in people with prostate cancer.

The team also looked at blood samples from 80 people who had had surgery to remove their lung tumors. For 17 patients, the cancer came back (recurred) within 3 years of their surgery. For the others, the cancer came back more than 3 years later or didn’t come back at all.

Earlier recurrence was more likely among patients with high levels of S100 proteins or norepinephrine in their blood than among those with low levels. Similarly, a 2019 study linked levels of S100 proteins in melanoma tumors with cancer metastasis and how long patients lived. However, a recent analysis of several studies found that the use of beta blockers wasn’t linked with longer survival of cancer patients

Opening the Floodgates for Research

Researchers have suspected that there might be a link between stress and cancer for some time. But “the mechanism behind that link remains somewhat elusive,” Dr. Hildesheim said. This study “makes a significant contribution” by identifying various components that might, in part, underlie that connection, he noted.

What’s more, this same mechanism could be contributing to cancer growth and treatment resistance in other ways, Dr. Hildesheim said. “The nervous system could be impacting [cancer] from multiple angles,” he added.

A 2019 study, for example, showed that stress hormones can increase the number of pro-tumor immune cells in tumors. That could mean that stress not only wakes up dormant tumor cells but also provides the right environment for them to grow, Dr. Hildesheim explained. 

“It’s the worst of both worlds,” he said. 

But, like Dr. Perego, he thinks it’s something that could be addressed by combining treatment approaches. Scientists are working to develop drugs that block the activity of or kill certain kinds of dormant cells called senescent cells. Finding ways to target senescent and dormant cells are two focuses of a recent partnership between NCI and Cancer Research UK.

Chemotherapy, radiation, and targeted therapy can all turn cancer cells into senescent cells. When combined with these traditional treatments, it’s possible that drugs that target senescent cells may prevent cancer from coming back, Dr. Hildesheim said. 



Συμπληρώστε το email σας για να λαμβάνετε τις σημαντικότερες ειδήσεις από το ogkologos.com

Βρείτε μας

2,449ΥποστηρικτέςΚάντε Like

Διαβαστε Επίσης

Καρκίνος και Κορωνοϊός (COVID-19) ΜΕΡΟΣ Α

Εάν είστε καρκινοπαθής, το ανοσοποιητικό σας σύστημα μπορεί να μην είναι τόσο ισχυρό όσο κανονικά, έτσι μπορεί να ανησυχείτε για τους κινδύνους που σχετίζονται...


Η Παγκόσμια Ημέρα Κατά του Καρκίνου καθιερώθηκε με πρωτοβουλία της Διεθνούς Ένωσης κατά του Καρκίνου (UICC), που εκπροσωπεί 800 οργανώσεις σε 155 χώρες του...


ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΣΤΗ ΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΗ-ΜΙΚΡΟΚΥΤΤΑΡΙΚΟΥ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΠΝΕΥΜΟΝΑ (ΜΜΚΠ) Γράφει ο Δρ Παπαδούρης Σάββας, Παθόλογος-Ογκολόγος   Ο ΜΜΚΠ βρίσκεται αναλογικά στο 80% και πλέον του συνολικού...

Διατρέχουν όντως οι καρκινοπαθείς μεγαλύτερο κίνδυνο λόγω κοροναϊού;

Σε πρακτικό επίπεδο, τα δεδομένα των σχετικών μελετών υποδηλώνουν ότι η χημειοθεραπεία ή οι άλλες αντι-νεοπλασματικές θεραπείες δεν αυξάνουν σημαντικά τον κίνδυνο θνησιμότητας από...

FDA: Η ακτινοβολία των smartphones δεν προκαλεί καρκίνο

Σε μια νέα έκθεσή της, η Υπηρεσία Τροφίμων και Φαρμάκων (FDA) των ΗΠΑ αναφέρει ότι επανεξέτασε τις σχετικές επιστημονικές έρευνες που δημοσιεύθηκαν τα τελευταία...

Νέα ανακάλυψη, νέα ελπίδα για τον καρκίνο

Ένα νεοανακαλυφθέν τμήμα του ανοσοποιητικού μας συστήματος θα μπορούσε να αξιοποιηθεί για την αντιμετώπιση όλων των ειδών καρκίνου, σύμφωνα με επιστήμονες του πανεπιστημίου Cardiff...
- Advertisment -

Ροή Ειδήσεων

Puppy That Was Born Dead Becomes Therapy Dog for Cancer Patient

This story has been shared as part of the Fur Fam Story Contest. You can submit your own tale through December 5th. Voting will...

ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress 2021, Geneva, Switzerland, 8-11 December

LUGANO, Switzerland – The ESMO Immuno-Oncology Congress 2021, the European platform dedicated to the development and use of immunotherapies for cancer treatment, will be held...

FDA Approves Sirolimus Protein-Bound Particles for Malignant Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumour

On 22 November 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sirolimus protein-bound particles for injectable suspension (albumin-bound) (Fyarro, Aadi Bioscience, Inc.) for...

Targeted drug recommended to treat some advanced lung cancer patients

Selpercatinib will expand treatment options available for people with RET fusion positive non small cell lung cancer. Non small cell lung cancer cells. The National Institute...

Withdrawal of Application to Change the EU Marketing Authorisation for Cervarix

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) announced on 12 November 2021 that GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA withdrew its application to use Cervarix (human papillomavirus vaccine ...

Robin Williams Required Film Companies He Worked With To Hire Homeless People

It’s been years since his passing, but the world still feels the loss of Robin Williams. Not only was he an extremely talented and funny...